Korean verb conjugation can appear a bit difficult while you first dive into the language. However don’t fear! Korean conjugation isn’t as troublesome because it first seems.
Actually, Korean verb conjugation is so much easier than another languages, like English or Spanish. And for those who’re studying this – you most likely have already got a local or working understanding of English grammar. So you possibly can positively grasp Korean grammar too!
There are a number of distinctive factors to Korean conjugation although, corresponding to the extent of ritual it is advisable to use based mostly on who you’re talking with.
On the flip aspect, you don’t have to fret about subject-verb settlement or the conjugation altering based mostly on who’s talking/the topic.
This turns into intuitive the extra you converse and observe Korean, although. So don’t get too caught up in it. You’ll study all it is advisable to know right here!
Let’s knock out some primary FAQs first:
Does Korean have verb conjugation?
Clearly, for those who’re right here, you most likely know that Korean does, the truth is, conjugate verbs.
How do verbs work in Korean?
So, how do you conjugate Korean verbs? Korean verbs are made up of a verb stem and a suffix or suffixes. To conjugate verbs, you’ll change the suffix to the tense or grammatical sample you want.
Right here’s what this appears like:
먹다, meokda, “to eat” in its infinitive (dictionary) type→ drop 다, da, so that you just solely have the verb stem 먹 → Add 어요, eoyo → 먹어요, meogeoyo, “eat” in current tense.
So verb conjugation works by studying the stem and altering the suffixes. We’ll dive extra into this in a second.
Additionally, in Korean, the sentence construction is totally different than in English. As a substitute of Topic-Verb-Object (SVO) format, Korean follows the Topic-Object-Verb (SOV) sample.
This implies verbs are at all times on the finish of Korean sentences.
What number of verb conjugations are there in Korean?
Lots. However there are about 40 verb endings it is advisable to know. These verbs can then be mixed in numerous methods to make different verb conjugations. So verb suffixes can get fairly lengthy!
When you ever get confused, need to examine your conjugation, or search for a verb and its types, I’ve a useful resource for you. You should utilize an automatic Korean verb conjugator like Dongsa Korean Verb Conjugator or Verbix to search for verb patterns.
I nonetheless suggest studying the grammar patterns by yourself, although, and never counting on these too closely!
Right here’s a take a look at what we’re going to study: the 4 primary Korean verb conjugations.
|Current Tense||Verb stem + 아 / 어||Verb stem + 아요 / 어요||Verb stem + ㅂ니다 / 습니다|
|Previous Tense||Verb stem + 았어 / 었어||Verb stem + 았어요 / 었어요||Verb stem + 았습니다 / 었습니다|
|Steady Tense||Verb stem + 고 있어||Verb stem + 고 있어요||Verb stem + 고 있습니다|
|Future Tense||Verb stem + ㄹ/을 거야||Verb stem + ㄹ/을 거예요||Verb stem + ㄹ/을 겁니다|
You’ll discover on the chart that there are totally different formalities. This impacts the way you conjugate a verb.
In Korean, there are numerous ranges of politeness and ritual which it is advisable to use relying on three key components: scenario, familiarity, and age.
Sure, age! Age is large in Korean tradition.
If somebody is older than you, even by just a little, it is advisable to use extra formal speech than in the event that they’re the identical age as you or youthful.
The three fundamental ranges of politeness are:
- Informal speech: For pals, individuals youthful than you, and generally household. For learners with out family and friends who converse Korean, you received’t use this one an excessive amount of proper now.
- Casual well mannered speech: That is the speech sample you’ll use in most conditions, particularly while you’re not acquainted or near the individuals you’re speaking to.
- Formal well mannered speech: Largely utilized in conditions just like the office, chatting with prospects in a retailer, public service bulletins, or when exhibiting respect to these older than you. Some Koreans are shifting towards casual well mannered speech, although, in a few of these conditions, so observe the lead of these round you.
First up, it is advisable to know how one can conjugate Korean verbs in current tense. That is additionally the way you conjugate adjectives as effectively in Korean!
Listed here are some verb examples:
|To jot down or to put on a hat||쓰다||sseuda|
|To be, have, or exist||있다||itda|
To begin, we’re going to heat up with the simplest conjugation to study: formal well mannered speech.
Although you received’t use this one as typically until you intend to work in Korea, it’s nonetheless a good suggestion to discover ways to conjugate Korean verbs in formal well mannered speech. And it’s a great way to observe figuring out the verb stem and including a suffix.
To conjugate in current formal tense, drop 다, da, and add -ㅂ니다, mnida, if the verb stem ends in a vowel, or -습니다, seumnida, if it ends in a consonant.
가다, gada, “to go” → 갑니다, gamnida
먹다, meokda, “to eat” → 먹습니다, meokseumnida
Fairly easy, proper? And if you wish to make it a query, all it’s a must to do is drop 다, da, and add –까, kka.
먹다, meokda, “to eat” → 먹습니까?, meokseumnikka, “(Did you) eat?”
Current well mannered tense – the commonest tense you’ll use, although – is a little more sophisticated. I do know it’ll look like so much to recollect, however I’ve acquired some excellent news!
One: This tense turns into very intuitive when you begin utilizing it. You’ll discover it conjugates the best way it does as a result of it sounds smoother and is simpler to pronounce. So while you mess up, you’ll discover it immediately.
Two: When you memorize this tense, it helps you with each different conjugation sample. All of them stem from this one. So placing the work in right here goes a LONG method and pays off!
To conjugate in current well mannered tense, we have to take a look at what the final vowel sound is within the verb. (Even when a consonant comes after it.)
If the vowel ends inㅏ, a, or ㅗ, o, you’ll drop 다, da, and add -아요, ayo.
가다, gada, “to go” → 가요, gayo
The final vowel is ㅏ, so that you don’t want two ㅏ. Simply add 요.
살다, salda, “to stay” → 살아요, sarayo
The final vowel is ㅏ, adopted by a consonant. Add 아요.
오다, oda, “to come back” → 와요, wayo
The final vowel is ㅗ, so it contracts into 와.
If the vowel sound ends in the rest, you’ll drop 다, da, and add -어요, eoyo. However the guidelines change for every one:
먹다, meokda, “to eat” → 먹어요, meogeoyo
Verb ends in a consonant, so add -어요.
마시다, masida, “to drink” → 마셔요, masyeoyo
Verbs that finish in ㅣ contract into ㅕ.
배우다, baeuda, “to study” → 배워요, baewoyo
Verbs that finish in ㅜ contract into ㅝ.
내다, naeda, “to pay” → 내요, naeyo
For verbs that finish in ㅓ, ㅕ, or ㅐ, you’ll simply add 요.
쓰다, sseuda, “to put in writing” and “to put on (a hat/on one’s head)” → 써요, sseoyo
Verbs ending in ㅡ, change ㅡ toㅓand add 요.
This one is tremendous simple as soon as well mannered type!
The conjugation is precisely the identical, besides you don’t add 요.
먹다, meokda, “to eat” → 먹어, meogeo
가다, gada, “to go” → 가, ga
There are fairly a number of irregular verbs in Korean, however I need to particularly present you two which are actually frequent.
First is 하다, hada, “to do.” You’ll see this one on a regular basis by itself or mixed with nouns to make them a verb. It conjugates as follows:
- Current formal tense: 하다 → 합니다, hamnida
- Current well mannered tense: 하다 → 해요, haeyo
- Current informal tense: 하다 → 해, hae
The following one is 이다, ida, “to be.” That is one other one you positively must know, as a result of it is a serving to verb that always ends sentences. Right here’s the way it conjugates:
- Current formal tense: 입니다, imnida
- Current well mannered tense: 이에요, ieyo, when the earlier phrase ends in a consonant and 예요, yeyo when it ends in a vowel
- Current informal tense: 이야, iya
How do you conjugate verbs in previous tense in Korean? Nicely, now that the current tense, it’s not too exhausting!
Let’s begin with well mannered type.
If the vowel ends inㅏ, a, or ㅗ, o, you’ll drop 다, da, and add -았어요, asseoyo.
가다, gada, “to go” → 갔어요, gasseoyo
The final vowel is ㅏ, so that you don’t want two ㅏ, similar to in current tense.
오다, oda, “to come back” → 왔어요, wasseoyo
The final vowel is ㅗ, so it contracts into 와, like in current tense.
If the vowel sound ends in the rest, you’ll drop 다, da, and add -었어요, eosseoyo.
먹다, meokda, “to eat” → 먹었어요, meogeosseoyo
The verb ends in a consonant, so add -었어요, eosseoyo, the identical as earlier than.
마시다, masida, “to drink” → 마셨어요, masyeosseoyo
Verbs that finish in ㅣ contract into ㅕ, the identical as in current tense
쓰다, sseuda, “to put in writing” and “to put on (a hat/on one’s head)” → 썼어요, sseosseoyo
Verbs ending in ㅡ drop ㅡ and add -었어요. That is an irregular sample you’ll see with ㅡ verbs.
When you’re talking casually, simply drop 요 from well mannered type. Every little thing else stays the identical.
As for formal well mannered type, it’s just like earlier than, however you’ll add -습니다, seumnida to -었 or -았 as a substitute of 어요.
가다, gada → 갔습니다, gassseumnida
먹다, meokda, “to eat” → 먹었습니다, meogeossseumnida
Steady tense, additionally known as current progressive tense, is the “-ing” type in English. It’s what we use after we’re doing one thing now or over a time frame.
This tense is fairly simple. We drop 다, and add -고 있어요.
있다, itda, means “to exist,” “to be,” or “to have.” We use -고, go, to attach the 2 verbs, after which conjugate 있다 for formality and tense.
For formal speech, drop 다, da, and add 고 있습니다, go issseumnida.
먹다, meokda, “to eat” → 먹고 있습니다, meokgo itseumnida, “consuming”
For well mannered speech, drop 다, da, and add -고 있어요, go isseoyo.
먹다, meokda → 먹고 있어요, meokgo isseoyo
For informal speech, drop 다, da, and add -고 있어, isseo.
먹다, meokda → 먹고 있어, meokgo isseo
For previous progressive (“was -ing”), you’ll use the previous tense type of 있다.
먹다, meokda → 먹고 있었어, meokgo isseosseo, “was consuming”
The final fundamental Korean verb conjugation we’re going to cowl immediately is future tense. If you wish to say you’re “going to” do one thing, that is the conjugation.
We’ll begin with well mannered type once more.
For verbs ending in a vowel, you’ll drop 다, da, and add -ㄹ 거예요, l geoyeyo. If it ends in ㄹ, you’ll simply add -거예요.
가다, gada, “to go” → 갈 거예요, gal geoyeyo
For verbs ending in a consonant (apart from ㄹ), you’ll drop 다, da, and add -을 거예요, eul geoyeyo.
먹다, meokda, “to eat” → 먹을 거예요, meogeul geoyeoyo
For informal type, drop 예요 and add 야, ya:
가다, gada, “to go” → 갈 거야, gal geoya
For formal type, change to 거예요 to 겁니다, gamnida:
가다, gada, “to go” → 갈 겁니다, gal gamnida
Nice work! I do know that was a LOT to soak up, and there’s nonetheless a lot to study. However it is a nice place to begin for expressing your self in most conditions.
When you really feel overwhelmed, don’t sweat it. I promise it will get simpler with observe. So why not strive making some sentences of your personal?