If you’re studying Bengali, you’ll undoubtedly wish to learn about the best way to speak about time and dates! Studying in regards to the distinctive Bengali calendar is a should.
Some facets could also be acquainted to you. For instance, there are seven days in a Bengali week, identical to in English. However do you know there are usually not 4, however six seasons within the Bengali calendar?
Bengalis use each the Western calendar and their very own twelve-month calendar, however they don’t match one another. Preserve studying to study all about them!
Days of the Month in Bengali
Numbers may be sophisticated in Bengali. It’s because every quantity from 0 to 100 is a unique phrase. However don’t fear about that an excessive amount of proper now. For speaking about days, we solely must study 1-31. I’ll present you ways!
Let’s first learn to depend 1-31 in Bengali. This will probably be our basis to saying days of the month, such because the tenth of March.
Observe that phrases ending in an “o” ( ো) sound could also be written with or with out the vowel in Bengali. Due to this fact, “eleven” (ægaro) could also be written as এগারো or এগার. For a complete information to the best way to pronounce Bengali phrases, take a look at our article on the Bengali alphabet.
- 1:এক (æk)
- 2: দুই (dui)
- 3: তিন (tin)
- 4: চার (char)
- 5: পাঁচ (pãch)
- 6: ছয় (cchoy)
- 7: সাত (shat)
- 8: আট (aʈ)
- 9: নয় (noy)
- 10: দশ (dosh)
- 11: এগারো (ægaro)
- 12: বারো (baro)
- 13: তেরো (tero)
- 14: চৌদ্দ (chouddo)
- 15: পনেরো (ponero)
- 16: ষোলো (sholo)
- 17: সতেরো (shotero)
- 18: আঠারো (aʈharo)
- 19: উনিশ (unish)
- 20: বিশ (bish) or কুড়ি (kuɽi) *Observe 1
- 21: একুশ (ækush)
- 22: বাইশ (baish)
- 23: তেইশ (teish)
- 24: চব্বিশ (chobbish)
- 25: পঁচিশ (pãchish)
- 26: ছাব্বিশ (chhabbish)
- 27: সাতাশ (shatash)
- 28: আটাশ (aʈash)
- 29: ঊনত্রিশ (unotrish)
- 30: তিরিশ (tirish) or ত্রিশ (trish) *Observe 2
- 31: একত্রিশ (æktrish)
*Observe 1: কুড়ি (kuɽi) is normally utilized in West Bengal, whereas it’s thought-about formal in Bangladesh. Bangladeshis colloquially use বিশ (bish) extra usually, however will nonetheless use the previous in formal writing, resembling literature or authorities paperwork.
*Observe 2: Related as with 20, West Bengalis will say তিরিশ (tirish), and Bangladeshis will use this in formal writing. Nonetheless, in regular speech, Bangladeshis desire ত্রিশ (trish).
Now that we now have our basis of cardinal numbers 1-31, we are able to use nearly all of those to depend the times of the month. The primary 4 are irregular, however after that, there are simple patterns, so don’t fear!
- 1st: পয়লা (pɔela) (a colloquial type of the extra official পহেলা pɔhela)
- 2nd: দোসরা (doshora)
- third: তেসরা (teshora)
- 4th: চৌঠা (chouʈha)
Alternatively, you could possibly use the easy quantity 1-4 and add the phrase for “date,” or তারিখ (tarikh) after. Due to this fact, you could possibly additionally say: এক তারিখ (æk tharik, the first), দুই তারিখ (dui tarikh, the 2nd), তিন তারিখ (tin tarikh, the third), and চার তারিখ (char tarikh, the 4th).
Now, for the fifth to 18th, simply add ই (i) to the tip of the quantity. It goes like this:
- fifth: পাঁচই (pãchi)
- sixth: ছয়ই (chhoyi)
- seventh: সাতই (shati)
- eighth: আটই (aʈi)
- ninth: নয়ই (noyi)
- tenth: দশই (doshi)
- eleventh: এগারোই (ægaroi)
- twelfth: বারোই (baroi)
- thirteenth: তেরোই (teroi)
- 14th: চৌদ্দই (chouddoi)
- fifteenth: পনেরোই (poneroi)
- sixteenth: ষোলোই (sholoi)
- seventeenth: সতেরোই (shoteroi)
- 18th: আঠারোই (aʈharoi)
For the nineteenth to Thirty first, simply add ে (e) to the tip!
- nineteenth: উনিশে (unishe)
- twentieth: বিশে (bishe) *Observe 1
- twenty first: একুশে (ækushe)
- twenty second: বাইশে (baishe)
- twenty third: তেইশে (teishe)
- twenty fourth: চব্বিশে (chobbishe)
- twenty fifth: পঁচিশে (pãchishe)
- twenty sixth: ছাব্বিশে (chhabbishe)
- twenty seventh: সাতাশে (shatashe)
- twenty eighth: আটাশে (aʈashe)
- twenty ninth: ঊনত্রিশে (unotrishe)
- thirtieth: তিরিশে (tirishe) or ত্রিশে (trishe) *Observe 2
- Thirty first: একত্রিশে (æktrishe)
*Observe 1: Each West Bengalis and Bangladeshis use বিশে (bishe).
*Observe 2: Bangladeshis will colloquially say ত্রিশে (trishe).
And there you’ve gotten it! Now you know the way to speak about any day of the month. However discussing dates wouldn’t be full with out speaking about days of the week, so let’s study that subsequent.
Till the seventeenth century, the Bengali calendar could have had a special title for every day of the yr.
Fortunately, this modified, and now the Bengali calendar makes use of the 7-day Gregorian calendar (which is the usual calendar used within the West).
The week begins on Sunday, however Bengalis contemplate the beginning of the day to start and finish at dawn, somewhat than midnight!
The names of the week for the Bengali calendar are primarily based on Navagraha, or Hindu astrology. That is very related many different languages, resembling German, Spanish, and Japanese!
- Sunday রবিবার (robibar) or রব্বার (robbar) – actually “solar day” *Observe 1
- Monday সোমবার (shombar) – actually “moon day”
- Tuesday মঙ্গলবার (mong’golbar) – actually “Mars day”
- Wednesday বুধবার (budhbar) – actually “Mercury day”
- Thursday বৃহস্পতিবার (brihoshpotibar) – actually “Jupiter day”
- Friday শুক্রবার (shukrobar) – actually “Venus day”
- Saturday শনিবার (shonibar) – actually “Saturn day”
*Observe 1: In each West Bengal and Bangladesh, রবিবার (robibar) is commonly shortened to রব্বার (robbar) in colloquial speech.
Now, if you already know astrology phrases in Bengali, that is simple to recollect. Nonetheless, you most likely will study these a lot later! I personally used mnemonics to recollect many of the days of the week.
For instance, I imagined Tuesday is the day the Mongols invade, and Wednesday is Buddha’s day.
There are two methods of counting months in Bengali. You’ll usually hear the English months pronounced in a Bengali means. These would be the best so that you can keep in mind first! They go like this:
- “January”: জানুয়ারি (Januari)
- “February”: ফেব্রুয়ারি (Februari)
- “March”: মার্চ (March)
- “April”: এপ্রিল (Epril)
- “Could”: মে (Me)
- “June”: জুন (Jun)
- “July”: জুলাই (Julai)
- “August”: আগস্ট (Agosʈ)
- “September”: সেপ্টেম্বার (Sepʈembar)
- “October”: অক্টোবার (Okʈobar)
- “November”: নভেম্বার (Nobhembar)
- “December”: ডিসেম্বার (Ɖisembar)
Additionally, you will generally hear Bengalis speak about their 12 months utilizing the normal phrases. Nonetheless, these don’t match the 12 months within the English calendar. As an alternative, they match the six Bengali seasons (extra on that later!). Within the Bengali calendar, the yr begins in বৈশাখ (Boishak), or mid-April.
These months are:
- বৈশাখ (Boishak): mid-April to mid-Could
- জ্যৈষ্ঠ (Joishʈho): mid-Could to mid-June
- আষাঢ় (Ashaɽh): mid-June to mid-July
- শ্রাবণ (Shrabon): mid-July to mid-August
- ভাদ্র (Bhadro): mid-August to mid-September
- আশ্বিন (Ashhin): mid-September to mid-October
- কার্তিক (Kartik): mid-October to mid-November
- অগ্রহায়ণ (Ɔgrohayon): mid-November to mid-December
- পৌষ (Poush): mid-December to mid-January
- মাঘ (Magh): mid-January to mid-February
- ফাল্গুন (Falgun): mid-February to mid-March
- চৈত্র (Choitro): mid-March to mid-April
Like Western Gregorian months, conventional Bengali months all have 30-31 days in Bangladesh. That is apart from Falgun, which since 2019 has 29 days, however 30 on leap years. Fortunately, it overlaps with February, so it’s simple to recollect!
Nonetheless, issues can get extra sophisticated in India, with every month being between 29-32 days. It’s because it’s extra related with the normal Hindu calendar system.
The Bengali calendar is 594 years behind the Gregorian calendar–though nobody is aware of for certain how the Bengali calendar began! Due to this fact, as of mid-April 2023, it will likely be the yr 1430 in response to the normal calendar. Nonetheless, like months, the Gregorian yr is often used.
For dates from the yr 2000 and up, you will want to know the phrase for “thousand”: হাজার (hajar). So for instance, to say the present yr 2023, you’d say “two thousand twenty-three,” or দুই হাজার তেইশ (dui hajar teish).
Nonetheless, earlier than the 2000’s, issues have been a bit completely different. You break up the yr into two components, just like how you’d in English. For instance, my beginning yr of 1993 would even be actually “nineteen ninety-three,” simply including শ (shɔ) after the primary half. 1993 in Bengali is উনিশ-শ তিরানব্বই (unish-sho tiranobboi).
Sadly which means for years earlier than 2000, you must study the remainder of the numbers from 32-99. However fortunately you don’t want to do that to offer the present date till 2032!
Lastly, it’s best to add সাল (shal) after the yr if it’s not clear by context.
Let’s speak about seasons!
Though to me, Bangladesh felt prefer it had solely two seasons (“scorching” and “cool”), Bangladeshis will inform you this isn’t true! The Bengali individuals are very delicate to the altering seasons.
The six seasons to them within the Bengal area are:
- বসন্ত (bɔshonto): “spring”, which is February to April
- গ্রীষ্ম (grishho [formal] or grishmo [colloquial]): “summer time”, which is April to June
- বর্ষা (bɔrsha): “wet/Monsoon season”, which is June to August
- শরৎ (shɔrɔt): “fall/autumn”, which is August to October
- হেমন্ত (hemɔnto): “dry/harvesting season”, which is October to December
- শীত (shit): “winter”, which is December to February
For an American in Bangladesh, summer time, the wet season, and winter have been very distinguishable. However I wasn’t very conscious of the opposite three seasons coming and going. I usually questioned what number of seasons Bengalis would contemplate my hometown to have, because the temperature modified way more there!
As a result of location of the Bengal area, generally it feels just like the seasons occur in several months as properly. For instance, in many of the US, July is the most popular month, however in Bangladesh, April normally is! Nonetheless, January is commonly the coldest month in each international locations.
Many Bangladeshis don’t dream a few spring or summer time wedding ceremony like People do as a result of it’s so scorching and humid. However as a substitute, the winter months are a well-liked time to get married as a result of dry, cooler climate.
Hardly a day glided by within the winter months after I didn’t see a marriage celebration in Bangladesh!
Listed here are another helpful phrases to speak about dates and the calendar in Bengali.
- “Day”: দিন (din)
- “Week”: সপ্তাহ (shɔpta)
- “Month”: মাস (mash)
- “12 months”: বছর (bɔchhor)
- “Morning”: সকাল (shɔkal)
- “Afternoon/Noon”: দুপুর (dupur)
- “Night”: বিকাল (bikal)
- “Night time”: রাত (rat)
- “From/Since”: থেকে (theke)
- “Till”: পর্যন্ত (porjonto)
- “Yesterday”: গতকাল (gɔtokal)
- “Right now”: আজকে (ajke)
- “Tomorrow”: আগামীকাল (agamikal)
- “Yesterday…” / “Final…”: গত (gɔto) – Ex. গত দুপুর (gɔto dupur, “yesterday midday”), গত মাস (gɔto mash, “final month”)
- “This…”: আজ (aj) or এই (ei) – You utilize আজ (aj) if one thing takes place throughout the day (ex. আজ দুপুর – aj dupur or “this afternoon”), however এই (ei) if one thing takes place past the day (ex. এই সপ্তাহ – ei shɔpta, “this week”).
- “Tomorrow…” / “Subsequent…”: আগামী (agami) – Ex. আগামী বিকাল (agami bikal, “tomorrow night”), আগামী বছর (agami bochhor, “subsequent yr”)
Now, let’s attempt placing all of it collectively! Listed here are some widespread phrases in Bengali utilizing your new data about days and the calendar.
“What date is right this moment?”: আজ কত তারিখ? (Aj kɔto tarikh?)
“It’s January 30.”: আজ জানুয়ারি ত্রিশে। (Aj Januari trishe.)
“The Bengali new yr is the primary day of Boishakh.”: বাংলা নববর্ষ পহেলা বৈশাখ। (*Bangla nɔboborsho pɔhela Boishakh.”)
“When is your birthday?” (honorific): আপনার জন্মদিন কবে? (Apnar jɔnmodin kɔbe?)
“When is your birthday?” (informal): তোমার জন্মদিন কবে? (Tomar jɔnmodin kɔbe?)
“I used to be born on June 1, 1993.”: আমার জন্ম হয়েছিল উনিশ-শ তিরানব্বই সালে। (Amar jɔnmo hɔechhilo unish-shɔ tiranobboi shale.)
“What’s your favourite season?” (honorific): আপনার প্রিয় ঋতু কি? (Apnar priyo ritu ki?)
“What’s your favourite season?” (informal): তোমার প্রিয় ঋতু কি? (Tomar priyo ritu ki?)
“My favourite season is winter.”: আমার প্রিয় ঋতু শীতকাল। (Amar priyo ritu shitkal.)
“I work from Monday to Friday.”: আমি সোমবার থেকে শুক্রবার কাজ করি। (Ami shombar theke shukroba kaj kori.)
“I’ll examine till September.”: সেপ্টেম্বার পর্যন্ত পড়াশোনা করব। (Sepʈembar porjonto pɔrashona korbo.)
“I’m in Bangladesh till April.”: আমি এপ্রিল পর্যন্ত বাংলাদেশে আছি।(Ami Epril porjonto Bangladeshe achhi.)
“I’ve lived in Kolkata since July.”: আমি জুলাই মাস থেকে কলকাতায় থাকি। (Ami Julai theke Kolkatae thaki.)
There are third-party apps that allow you to view the Bengali calendar in your cellphone. You will discover these by looking “Bengali calendar” or “Bangla calendar” in your app retailer of selection.
Google Calendar additionally has many choices for including Bengali holidays to your present calendar. You discover them this fashion:
Click on on the three traces, and select “Settings.” Below “Holidays,” you’ll be able to add public and different holidays for sure international locations, together with Bangladesh and India. You may also want to click on on “Add spiritual holidays,” as many Bangladeshis observe Muslim holidays, and plenty of West Bengalis observe Hindu holidays.
For iOS, your choices are extra restricted within the Calendar app. Throughout the app, click on “Calendars,” and select “Add Calendar.” Below “Add Vacation Calendar,” you’ll be able to add a vacation calendar for India.
These are in fact not particular to the Bengali calendar, however the excellent news is, there may be some overlap!
There’s loads to study in regards to the Bengali calendar, but it surely’s not that arduous. Most Bengalis are accustomed to the Gregorian calendar, so you’ll be able to study theirs to dive into their tradition extra. You’ll for certain expertise time and a way of holidays in an entire new means.
Perhaps your favourite season will even change!